I know I am probably way too late for you, but I thought for future searches I could answer a few of these questions.
Honestly, from what I have seen and what I have heard from others, all of the mountains you listed are worth a visit.
Jungfraujoch is not actually in Central Switzerland but it is not far. It seems to be the most well known internationally as it is Europe's highest altitude railway station (3,454 metres) and also has the longest ice stream in the Alps (Aletsch Glacier - 22 km). In addition, there is an ice palace and husky-drawn sledge rides, and terraces with 360 degree views.
On the other hand, Pilatus has the steepest cogwheel railway in the world at 48% gradient (and 4618m long) and two gondolas. In the summer they have Switzerland's longest tobaggan run and a large suspension rope park. However, Pilatus is significantly lower than Jungfraujoch at 2132m.
Titlis is another great option. At 3020m, it has the only glacier in Central Switzerland and a revolving cable car to the top.
As for traveling around Switzerland, I am inclined to say you should take the train. You will find no inconveniences with the transit sytem. The roads are fine but they do have some confusing intersections and parking is generally expensive and hard to find. The trains aren't cheap either but they take you from where you are to where you want to be and it is all so well planned out you will never get lost trying to find a bus station from a train station, or any other transfers. Also, the trains are often (but not always) faster than driving, especially if you can get intercity train(s) to your destination.
Bern, Luzern, and Interlaken are all great day or half-day trips. And they all have nearby mountain cablecars / railways to visit, so that may help you decide which itnerary to make. For what to do on daytrips to these areas, please read the Switzerland Starter Kit pinned in this forum.